Civil law is a system of law that originated in mainland Europe and was adopted by much of the world. Its primary source is Roman law, which served as an intellectual framework for the civil law system.
Common law is a legal system that governs the way laws and procedures are implemented. Unlike statutory law, which is based on pre-existing statutes, common law is more flexible and allows courts to make changes based on changing trends. This allows the law to change over time without a sharp break. Common law has been a part of the legal system in the US since the 18th century, and is recognized in 10 states, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Independent States, although there are certain limitations.
The Civil Code is a collection of laws that govern private life. It deals with property, family, and obligations. It is the primary source of legal guidance in the US.
Civil procedure is the set of rules by which courts proceed in civil cases. It regulates court proceedings and ensures orderly resolution of disputes. These rules apply to lawsuits of all sizes, from minor consumer complaints to major antitrust cases and constitutional rights that affect the entire country. They are complicated and require the expertise of lawyers.
There is a general justification for criminal law that comes from the need to protect society from the wrongdoing of its members. This justification is rooted in two basic values: the prevention of harm and the protection of morals. Criminal law helps bring these values to the forefront of a community’s moral horizon. If those values are not upheld, the consequences can be extreme, ranging from disenfranchisement to being denied access to healthcare, housing, or education.
There are two schools of private law. One is instrumentalist and the other is judicial functionalism. Instrumentalism tries to separate the goals of a statute from the actual meaning of its language.
International law is a body of rules that governs states and the activities of individuals within them. It covers a wide range of international issues and regulates the global commons. There are more than 500 multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and many other treaties deposited with government bodies.